Like all steels,
microalloyed steels are iron-based metal alloys. Normally, they are plain
carbon or low-alloy steel with small additions of one of
three special elements. These steels were developed in the 1960s and used for
plate and pipeline applications. It was not until the 1980s, however, that
forgers began to produce microalloyed steel components in significant
all steels, stainless steels are iron-based alloys. They are considered a
special class of steels because of their high alloy content and their special
properties as compared to plain-carbon and low-alloy steels.
Robotic die spray systems offer forge shops the most options and flexibility to solve die spray issues. Additionally, there exists a variety of spray tip and nozzle designs that, when properly integrated, can help maintain quality and consistency from one forging cycle to the next.
The microstructural analysis of tool steels yields important information on how forging dies will perform in service. It is particularly important to keep retained austenite in the tool below 4%. Through a series of controlled tests on tool-steel slugs, it was found that cryogenic or oil quenching can help minimize retained austenite in the tool steel and enhance tool-steel performance.
The controlled cooling of a hot forging has several advantages over the antiquated practice of piling the forgings into a bin until the bin is full, then repeating the same uncontrolled filling of another bin until the forging run is completed. Repeatable cooling for each forging produces a consistent microstructure, hardness and residual-stress state in the parts as well as consistent dimensions at ambient temperature.