In the hot and warm forging of steel, there is a clear trend to replace graphite-based die lubricants with synthetic lubricants. This is driven by the need for cleaner work environments, easier handling and to avoid graphite-induced galvanic corrosion of equipment.
Solid railroad axles can be produced with a variety of metal-forming techniques. This article reviews these techniques and focuses on a more recent method called skew rolling, which is performed using three rolls to form an axle profile according to product specifications.
A rail axle is a round steel rod whose cross section varies along its length to conform to the individual purpose of the parts and stresses that occurs in it. The types of unfinished axles that may be produced, depending on the production method, include solid axles and hollow axles.
Cross-wedge rolling (CWR) is a forging technique in which a heated billet is formed by rolling it between two flat (or cylindrical parallel-axis) die plates. This article describes the CWR process and equipment as applied to the production of railroad screws and other similar products.