It has been shown that pre-forming operations have a significant effect on predicting cracking based on mathematical damage models. Pre-forming operations such as wire drawing and bar cropping should be included in the simulation model for highest accuracy and best predictive results.
Metal-forming simulations are used to develop unique processing techniques by eliminating the high number of laboratory tests required in such research, but they are also used extensively for the predictive detection of possible material failures, forging force detection, proper die design and topology optimization in the industry.
Hot-forging dies should display high strength, toughness and low wear. Plastic deformation and wear of the dies lead to their costly refitting or disposal. This article analyzes the role of circumferential press-fit rings on the plastic deformation and wear of a die employed in the production of spherical milling bodies.