Cold forging is a proven and efficient serial production method for bolt manufacturing. Despite the many advantages of cold forging, the method requires high forging forces due to the low material formability.
It has been shown that pre-forming operations have a significant effect on predicting cracking based on mathematical damage models. Pre-forming operations such as wire drawing and bar cropping should be included in the simulation model for highest accuracy and best predictive results.
Metal-forming simulations are used to develop unique processing techniques by eliminating the high number of laboratory tests required in such research, but they are also used extensively for the predictive detection of possible material failures, forging force detection, proper die design and topology optimization in the industry.