is the main constituent in titanium alloys, of course, but they can contain a
significant amount of other elements, which are added for a variety of
metallurgical reasons. The strength of titanium alloys can often be comparable
to steel, but they have the advantage of having only about 60% of the weight.
This article continues FORGE’s series on forging
materials. The first installment on nonferrous forging materials discusses
aluminum alloys that are used in forged components. A general description of
aluminum alloys is followed by details of their chemistry and microstructure.
Like all steels,
microalloyed steels are iron-based metal alloys. Normally, they are plain
carbon or low-alloy steel with small additions of one of
three special elements. These steels were developed in the 1960s and used for
plate and pipeline applications. It was not until the 1980s, however, that
forgers began to produce microalloyed steel components in significant
all steels, stainless steels are iron-based alloys. They are considered a
special class of steels because of their high alloy content and their special
properties as compared to plain-carbon and low-alloy steels.
In-line induction heating has become a popular method of heating billets in forging applications. There are many parameters to be considered in designing an induction heating system to meet the needs of modern forge shops. Application experience and computer modeling are important tools in developing effective induction billet-heating systems and avoiding unpleasant surprises related to common misconceptions.
In the first four articles in this series, the operation and use of four types of forging equipment – hammers, mechanical presses, hydraulic presses and screw presses – were reviewed. In this fifth and final article, a general comparison of these four types of forging equipment is made. Each type of equipment can perform well or poorly depending on conditions and circumstances. It is hoped that the comparisons made in this article will help readers select the right type of equipment for the specific job.
This article examines the application of screw presses for forging operations. An overview of screw presses and typical applications are discussed first, followed by the physics of their operation. Simulations are used to illustrate these various aspects, which cannot be directly observed during production. Other features and characteristics, which are important for the proper use and operation of screw presses, are also described.