In some applications, such as the forming of tie-rod heads, only the end regions of the workpiece need to be heated for subsequent deformation. Induction end-heating systems of all coil types are more sensitive to electromagnetic and thermal non-uniformities that are innate to the induction heating process.
The ISO 50001 international standard for energy performance was introduced in part 1 of this article. In this concluding installment, the individual stages of an induction heating line are examined for individual energy efficiencies. An actual energy audit is also summarized.
Quality problems of forged steel products may originate from the ingot casting process. Simulation tools for both casting and forming processes are available to analyze and optimize the quality and productivity of each.