In this series, we will examine the concepts and features of forging grain flow. This article will cover the basics of grain flow that occur during metalworking processes. It will also discuss how grain flow can be observed in a forged part. In future articles, the effect of forging parameters on grain flow, the influence of machining after forging, grain flow in open-die and large forgings, and forging design considerations for grain flow will be discussed.
Grain flow is one of the major benefits cited for the use of forgings. Unfortunately, there are misconceptions on the topic, which include the underlying causes of grain flow, the benefits that can be accrued from grain flow and how to achieve an optimum grain flow. In the best case, grain flow results in a delighted customer and a forging that thrives in a critical service application.