Quality problems of forged steel products may originate from the ingot casting process. Simulation tools for both casting and forming processes are available to analyze and optimize the quality and productivity of each. There is a clear need for a through-process simulation of both to predict possible defects and to optimize the entire process chain.
The final quality of forged steel products is the result of their sequential production steps. After steelmaking, molten metal is tapped from a ladle and poured into a mold, where it solidifies. The solidified ingot is then brought to its semi-finished shape through a series of reheating and forging steps, each of which influences final product quality. Many defects in forged or hot-rolled products originate from the casting process.